AV over IP (AVoIP) is a general term used for the various methods of transmitting audio and video content by using standard, routable, Ethernet packets and following normal Internet Protocol rules. By taking advantage of the distribution benefits provided by Ethernet network switch architecture, it is possible to create very large and efficient extended video matrix or distribution environments. Even though AVoIP content can coexist with normal Ethernet data traffic on the same network segment, AVoIP content typically uses large amounts of bandwidth, so it is still recommended to keep AVoIP and normal network traffic separate. Point to point extension methods, such as HDBaseT, are not considered AVoIP, despite the use of Ethernet cables, due to the signal being proprietary, and non-routable.
Unicast and Multicast are two different signal routing/distribution methods used by Ethernet networks which are commonly used by AVoIP distribution systems.
Unicast: A point-to-point routing method where each content source negotiates a direct networking path to each individual defined
recipient on the network. This is the most common method of data transmission for Ethernet devices.
The primary advantages of unicast for AVoIP usage are:
The potential ability to be routed over large distances and across multiple routers, between networks, or even across the Internet in some cases.
Bidirectional communication and data transmission between source and destination is easily accomplished.
The primary disadvantages of unicast for AVoIP usage are:
Uses up bandwidth very quickly when multiple AVoIP destinations are involved since each point-to-point connection uses the full bandwidth required by the source, even when coming from a single source.
Switching speed in matrixing scenarios will typically be slower due to the need to negotiate a new route every time a switch is made.
- Multicast: A point-to-multipoint routing method where content from a single source is transmitted to a network switch and made optionally available to any endpoints on the network that wish to receive the data. This mode is designed for efficient one-way distribution of a data source to very large groups of destination devices and is ideal for video distribution and matrixing. Each destination device connected to the network can indicate if it wishes to receive the multicast data or not. A network switch must support the Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) and IGMP Snooping in order to properly manage and distribute multicast data streams.
The primary advantages of multicast for AVoIP usage are:
- Highly efficient bandwidth usage for distribution of an AVoIP signal to multiple destinations. A multicast source only needs to open a single connection to the network regardless of how many receiving devices might be connected. Each receiving device chooses whether to receive a copy of a data stream from the network switch or not.
- Matrix switching between available AVoIP sources on the network is simple and relatively quick.
The primary disadvantages of multicast for AVoIP usage are:
- AVoIP signal extension is typically limited to a local network connected via switches. Most network routers are typically not configured to, or capable of, forwarding multicast packets.
- Bidirectional communication between source and destination is very difficult, and in many cases impossible.
Multi-mode and Single-mode fiber are two different specifications of optical fiber typically used for AV signal extension using pulses of light.
Signals transmitted via optical fiber are not susceptible to electromagnetic (EMI) interference making them the ideal solution for electrically “noisy” installation locations.
- Single-mode fiber: A type of optical fiber optimized for extremely long distance signal transmission. Single-mode fiber is designed to carry only a single specific wavelength of light (typically 1310nm or 1550nm) enabling data rates up to 10Gbps and transmission distances up to 80km. Due to the tight specification requirements, single-mode transceivers tend to have a higher cost than multi-mode transceivers. Single-mode fiber AV extenders typically support 15 or 30km, but the real world data rates and transmission distances will vary depending on the quality of cable and optical transceivers used.
- Multi-mode fiber: A type of optical fiber optimized for relatively low cost, shorter distance signal transmission. Multi-mode fiber is considerably thicker than single-mode fiber which allows the use of much lower cost light sources such as LEDs, however the trade off is a considerably shorter transmission distance. Multi-mode fiber is available in a variety of specification categories (OM1 through OM5) with varying distance limitations depending on the bandwidth used and the specification level. Multi-mode fiber AV extenders typically support 300m or 500m, but the real world data rates and transmission distances will vary depending on the quality of cable and optical transceivers used. Currently, Cypress products are designed to work with OM3 and OM4.
Adaptive Visually Lossless Compression (AVLC) is technology which can reduce the HDMI bit rate of 3~6Gbps sources down to 2.5~3Gbps, using its own situationally adaptive video compression and decompression engine. Cypress HDBaseT AVLC extender models enable video resolutions up to 4K@60Hz (4:4:4, 8-bit) or 4K@60Hz (4:2:2/4:2:0, 10/12-bit, HDR10/Dolby Vision), to be transmitted along with HD audio, 2-Way IR, RS-232, PoH (Power over HDBaseT) and LAN signals up to a distance of 100m.
Display Stream Compression (DSC), a standard published by the Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA), uses a lightweight, visually lossless, image compression scheme to increase the effective amount of data carried by a display interface without increasing the actual data rate. Being visually lossless means that a typical person observing a display, under normal viewing conditions, would not notice any difference or degradation of the image, after the compression has been applied, when compared with the uncompressed image or video.
The HDMI 2.1 specification incorporates VESA DSC 1.2a link compression to reach resolution timings higher than 8K@60Hz (YCbCr 4:2:0, 10-bit), such as 8K@60Hz (RGB), 8K@120Hz and even 10K@120Hz. VESA DSC 1.2a can also be applied to lower resolutions, such as 4K@50/60Hz, with the benefit of enabling operation with much lower bandwidth requirements. Cypress extender models using DSC technology can transfer 4K@60Hz (4:4:4) or 4K@24Hz (4:4:4, 12-bit, HDR) over HDBaseT connections.
SDVoE stands for “Software Defined Video over Ethernet”. SDVoE technology is a networked AV standard in the industry, delivering HDMI over Ethernet with zero latency. SDVoE creates a flexible hardware and software platform which can enable many applications including matrix switches, KVM extenders, video wall controllers and image processors. As a member of the SDVoE Alliance, Cypress released its first extender set based on the technology in 2017 as the latest addition to its product line of AV-over-IP solutions.
Motion JPEG (M-JPEG or MJPEG) is a video compression format in
which each video frame (or interlaced field) of a digital video sequence is compressed
separately as a JPEG image to decrease transmission bandwidth requirements
while maintaining low latency and preserving individual frame detail.
Originally developed for multimedia PC applications, M-JPEG is now used by
video-capture devices such as digital cameras, IP cameras, and webcams, as well
as by non-linear video editing systems. Generally, when latency is the primary
concern, MJPEG is a better choice than H.264.
H.264 or MPEG-4 Part 10, Advanced Video Coding (MPEG-4 AVC) is a block-oriented, motion-compensation-based, video compression standard designed to greatly reduce transmission bandwidth requirements while maintaining high video quality at the cost of greater video latency. As of 2014 it is one of the most commonly used formats for the recording, compression, and distribution of video content. It supports resolutions up to 4096×2304, including 4K UHD. Generally, when bandwidth is the primary concern, H.264 is a better choice than MJPEG.
H.265, also known as HEVC (High-Efficiency Video Coding) is the successor to H.264. Where H.264’s focus is on compressing 1080p sources, H.265 is heavily focused on encoding and compressing 4K video sources as efficiently as possible while maintaining high video quality. To achieve this H.265 employs the use of both DCT (Discrete Cosine Transforms) and DST (Discrete Sine Transforms) with block sizes ranging from 4x4 to 32x32. When compared directly to H.264, H.265 can produce video streams that are roughly 50% smaller while maintaining the same visual quality. These advantages make it ideal for advanced video streaming products and CYP has implemented this technology to great effect.
HDMI 2.0 is backwardly compatible with the specifications of the preceding HDMI 1.x standards, and it significantly increases the available bandwidth to 18Gbps (up from the 10.2Gbps limit of the HDMI 1.3/1.4 standards). HDMI 2.0 includes many new advanced features:
- Supports 4K@50/60 (2160p), RGB/YCbCr 4:4:4 with 8-bits per channel, or YCbCr 4:2:0 with 8/10/12-bits per channel
- Supports 4K@24/25/30, RGB/YCbCr 4:4:4 at 8/10/12/16-bits per channel
- Supports the BT.2020 color space • Supports High Dynamic Range (HDR) video
- Supports up to 32 audio channels • Supports audio sample frequencies up to 1536kHz
- Supports the wide angle theatrical 21:9 video aspect ratio
- Additional CEC extensions providing expanded command and control capability between connected devices
There is currently no software/firmware solution capable of upgrading existing HDMI 1.x devices to support HDMI 2.0 features. The new enhanced feature set of HDMI 2.0 requires both new hardware AND firmware to be fully implemented. Cypress was among the first manufacturers to license these new HDMI specifications and become an HDMI 2.0 adopter.
The HDMI 2.1 specification supports a range of higher video resolutions and refresh rates including 4K@120Hz, 8K@60Hz, and resolutions up to 10K(10240×4320). A variety of static and dynamic HDR formats are also supported. The overall bandwidth capability is increased up to 48Gbps.
HDMI Specification 2.1 Features Include:
- Maximum supported resolution is 10K at 120Hz
- Dynamic HDR for specifying HDR metadata on a scene-by-scene or even a frame-by-frame basis
- Display Stream Compression (DSC) 1.2 is used for video formats higher than 8K with 4:2:0 chroma subsampling
- High Frame Rate (HFR) for 4K, 8K, and 10K which adds support for refresh rates up to 120Hz
- Enhanced Audio Return Channel (eARC) supporting object-based audio formats such as Dolby Atmos and DTS:X over the return channel.
- Enhanced refresh rate features:
- ‐ Variable Refresh Rate (VRR) reduces or eliminates lag, stutter and frame tearing for more fluid motion in games
- ‐ Quick Media Switching (QMS) for movies and video eliminates the delay that can result in blank screens before content is displayed
- ‐ Quick Frame Transport (QFT) reduces latency
- Auto Low Latency Mode (ALLM) automatic latency setting to the lowest ideal latency
HDR (High Dynamic Range) is a colorimetry extension to the HDMI 2.0 video standard initially defined in the CEA-861.3 bulletin and uses the wide color gamut, with 10 or 12-bits per channel, provided for by the BT.2020 color space. HDR video sources provide additional metadata (static or dynamic) with the base video signal which defines the detailed color and contrast range information used by the source. This metadata is then used by the HDR compatible sink/display to show the content with the original deep and rich color available from the source, greatly enhancing the viewing experience over what would be possible using the standard HDTV (BT.709) color range. HDR currently comes in a variety of competing formats, but the most common and basic format supported by all HDR compliant displays is HDR10 which uses static metadata, and requires 10-bit color support. HDMI officially added support for HDR with the HDMI 2.0a specification, and Cypress has implemented support in all of our HDMI 2.0 models.
HDR10, HLG, Dolby Vision, and HDR10+ all refer to different High Dynamic Range (HDR) digital video formats. Each format delivers a greatly expanded HDR color space, however the method of delivery, display compatibility, and perceptive quality of the delivered image can vary considerably.
- HDR10: This HDR format was first supported within the HDMI 2.0a specification. It uses the wide-gamut Rec. 2020 color space, a bit depth of 10-bits, and the SMPTE ST 2084 (PQ) transfer function along with static metadata to define the delivered HDR color space. This format provides for a maximum pixel brightness of up to 1,000 cd/m2. HDR10 is currently the most common HDR format and is standard on a wide variety of 4K sources including 4K Blu-ray, 4K video game consoles, and 4K video streaming services. HDR10 is an open standard and support for it is typically considered to be a minimum requirement for a source or display to claim HDR capability with support for other formats added on top if desired.
- HLG: Hybrid Log-Gamma (HLG) is a broadcast-friendly HDR format jointly developed by the BBC and NHK and first supported within the HDMI 2.0b specification. It has a color bit depth of 10-bits and uses a non-linear electro-optical transfer function (EOTF) and a specialized logarithmic gamma curve to define the delivered HDR color space while maintaining backwards compatibility with older Standard Definition (SD) displays. This format does not use metadata and provides for a maximum pixel brightness of up to 1,000 cd/m2. HLG is royalty-free and with support from broadcast standards organizations around the world, this format is most likely to be encountered via over-the-air, cable, or satellite broadcast sources, though a number of video streaming services also support it.
- Dolby Vision: This is a proprietary HDR format developed by Dolby Laboratories with the goal of providing a “premium” HDR experience. It uses the wide-gamut Rec. 2020 color space, a bit depth of 12-bits, and dynamic metadata to define the delivered HDR color space. Dynamic metadata allows the color range to be customized on a per-scene, or per-frame basis. Dolby Vision also provides for a greatly increased maximum brightness (up to 10,000 cd/m2) when compared to HDR10 and HLG, however current display technology is unable to display pixels at such a high brightness and content mastering is typically limited to 4,000 cd/m2. Official HDMI support for HDR with dynamic metadata will arrive with HDMI 2.1, however this format can be successfully transmitted/received by HDMI 2.0 devices if they have been specifically designed to support it. Dolby Vision is currently supported as an option on some 4K Blu-ray players/discs as well some video streaming services.
- HDR10+: This is an open standard HDR format developed by Samsung with the goal of providing an upgrade over the standard HDR10 experience. It uses the wide-gamut Rec. 2020 color space, a bit depth of 10-bits, and dynamic metadata to define the delivered HDR color space. Dynamic metadata allows the color range to be customized on a per-scene, or per-frame basis. This format provides for a maximum pixel brightness of up to 4,000 cd/m2. Official HDMI support for HDR with dynamic metadata will arrive with HDMI 2.1, however this format can be successfully transmitted/received by HDMI 2.0 devices if they have been specifically designed to support it. HDR10+ is the newest of the HDR formats, and as such is only supported by a relatively limited number of sources and displays.
HDBaseT is a multimedia extension technology which can connect all of the entertainment devices in the home through its 5Play™ feature set, converging uncompressed full HD digital video, audio, 100BaseT Ethernet, 48V PoH (Power over HDBaseT) and various control signals all through a single 100m/328ft (or 70m/230ft the lite version) Cat.5e/6 cable.
HDBaseT 2.0 is the latest specification released by the HDBaseT Alliance. In addition to the original HDBaseT 5Play feature set (transmission of high definition video, audio, Ethernet, power, and controls over single Cat.5 cable), it adds new features such as USB 2.0 support and HDMI 2.0 capabilities including support for 4K@60Hz. Stability and noise rejection at high resolutions over long distance runs has also been greatly improved.
While HDBaseT 1.0 uses the Physical and Data Link layers only, HDBaseT 2.0 adds networking, switching and control point capabilities.
HDBaseT 1.0 defined a point-to-point connectivity standard, HDBaseT 2.0 defines point-to-multi point connectivity, thereby providing multi-stream support.
HDMI extenders using HDBaseT 2.0 can reliably transfer 4K content over longer distances than those with only HDBaseT 1.0 specs. Cypress is one of the pioneer manufacturers selected to develop and build products with the HDBaseT 2.0 specification, and Cypress released its first HDBaseT 2.0 extender set in Q3, 2014.
HDCP (High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection) is a form of digital copy protection designed to prevent the copying of digital audio and video content as it travels between devices. All devices in the connection chain must support HDCP in order for an HDCP-enforced source to display properly on an HDCP display. Typical connection types that implement HDCP include HDMI, DVI, and DisplayPort.
HDCP 2.x stands for the new digital content protection specifications released after HDCP 1.4, primarily referring to the HDCP 2.0 and HDCP 2.2 versions.
HDCP 2.0 uses industry-standard public-key RSA authentication and AES 128 encryption to support scenarios requiring compressed content and wireless or networked transmission while HDCP 1.x technology offers protection mainly for uncompressed content delivered over a direct wired connection. The interfaces which utilize HDCP 2.0 include DiiVA, NetHD, WHDI, WiHD, and some IP-based extending solutions.
HDCP 2.2 is the latest version of digital video content copy protection, it adds encryption on the keys (encrypted keys between the source and the display), more advanced than previous versions, and is primarily focused on protecting UltraHD 4K content. While HDCP 2.2 displays are backwards compatible with, and can display, HDCP 1.x content, HDCP 2.2 encrypted content is not backwards compatible with, and can’t be displayed on, HDCP 1.x displays. Typically only content with a native resolution of 4K and above will require HDCP 2.2 protection, therefore the currently popular 1080p playback scenarios (Blu-ray, HDTV, etc.) will not be affected.
For example, current 1080p displays will typically work fine with new HDCP 2.2 source devices as long as you’re not trying to send content that explicitly requires HDCP 2.2 protection (such as Ultra HD Blu-rays). Also, your current Blu-ray player will send 1080p to an HDCP 2.2-enabled receiver, or 4K TV, with no issues. Cypress has released a number of HDCP 2.0 products over the years, and Cypress started developing and releasing solutions implementing the HDCP 2.2 specification by 2014.
EDID (Extended Display Identification Data) is one of the standards defined by Video Electronics Standards Organization (VESA). When a digital source connects to a digital display, the display provides EDID information to it containing the details of the display’s capabilities such as audio and video formats, color space and color depth. Many, so-called, “smart” devices will use this information to automatically choose an output format considered to be the most appropriate for the connected display.
EDID management basically refers to two types of operations, EDID selection and EDID manipulation. Both management types are implemented by Cypress across a wide selection of products and product ranges. Most Cypress HDMI matrixes and splitters provide EDID selection functionality, allowing the user to select between an external EDID (of a connected display) and one or more internal (built-in) EDIDs. Additionally, there are a number of Cypress EDID selectors and signal generators that allow the user to modify the audio and video specifications within the EDID before sending it to the video source. This helps to solve incompatibility issues between display and source, and is also useful for system diagnosis when integrating multiple types of audio and video equipment.
ARC (Audio Return Channel) allows audio generated from a source built into the TV (Tuner, Smart TV streaming services, etc.) to be transmitted back upstream over the HDMI cable, typically to an AV receiver. This allows the AV receiver to process those additional audio sources without the need for additional audio cables running from the TV to the AV receiver.
HEC (HDMI Ethernet Channel) provides a bidirectional Ethernet connection (100Mbit/s) within the HDMI cable, eliminating the need for a separate Ethernet connection to each network-enabled device (TV, Media Player, AV receiver, etc.) in a professional/home A/V system installation. To take advantage of this feature, all connected HDMI devices in the chain, between Ethernet source and Ethernet destination, must support HEC.
ARC and HEC are both features added to HDMI specification as of version 1.4.
DANTE stands for “Digital Audio Network Through Ethernet”. Dante is a combination of software, hardware, and network protocols that delivers uncompressed, multi-channel, low-latency digital audio over a standard Ethernet network using Layer 3 IP packets. Dante is a complete media network solution developed by Audinate which is a Sydney-based company and supported by a majority of pro audio manufacturers. Dante is generally simple to use and is a more flexible way to route, label and configure complex audio installations through a combination of software and star-topology networking than with traditional point-to-point or daisy-chained hardware wiring. Additionally, Dante adheres to the AES67 collection of networking standards and all products using Dante follow those same specifications and rules. This makes compatibility issues and interoperability problems exceptionally rare occurrences.
eARC is a part of the HDMI 2.1 standard and stands for Enhanced Audio Return Channel. As the name implies, it is an overall upgrade over the existing ARC standard that was introduced in HDMI 1.4. The primary function of eARC is to allow audio generated from a source built into the TV (Tuner, Smart TV streaming services, etc.) to be transmitted back upstream over the HDMI cable, to an AV receiver or sound bar. The primary enhancement that eARC brings is a greatly increased audio bandwidth, allowing it to support a wide range of high-bitrate bitstream formats, up to and including object-oriented formats such as Dolby Atmos and DTS:X. While it is recommended to use the new HDMI 2.1 spec Ultra High Speed HDMI Cables, eARC is also supported by the older High Speed HDMI with Ethernet cable specification. eARC is not defined to be backwards compatible with ARC, however some manufacturers may opt to include support for both standards in their products.
LPCM (Linear Pulse-Code Modulation) is a method of encoding and embedding up to 8 channels (7.1) of uncompressed audio into a digital video signal. The term also refers collectively to formats using this method of encoding. The HDMI interface supports up to 8-channels of LPCM/192kHz/24-bit audio, which is generally the default audio output format of media players. LPCM 2.0 (Stereo) at 48kHz is typically the minimum format supported by HDMI devices.
Dolby Digital (also known as AC-3) is a proprietary audio compression format developed and owned by Dolby Laboratories. It supports channel configurations from mono up to six discrete channels (referred to as “5.1”). This audio format was the first to popularize surround sound in theaters. While it was originally developed for movie theater sound, eventually it spread to CDs, DVDs, Blu-rays, and now to various streaming services.
The Dolby Digital audio signals from a DVD/Blu-ray player are digitally compressed and encoded by Dolby Digital technology, so an AV receiver is required to decode and convert the signals to an analog format before users can enjoy the audio from their speakers. To handle Dolby Digital audio, Cypress provides much simpler (and much smaller) solutions than traditional bulky AV receivers. These tiny audio decoder gadgets can do the decoding and conversion of Dolby Digital audio in a plug and play fashion.
USB Type-C is a compact, orientation-agnostic, USB connector that was introduced at the same time as the USB 3.1 specification and is specifically designed for use on small portable devices and slim laptops where a traditional USB connection is too large. USB Type-C can support a number of different operational modes, depending on a device’s intended use. These modes include standard USB 1.x/2.x/3.x data modes, Audio Adapter Accessory Mode, or the Alternate Mode which can directly deliver vendor-defined signals such as HDMI, MHL, DisplayPort, or Thunderbolt. In USB 3.2 mode USB Type-C can support data rates up to 20 Gbit/s. USB Type-C devices are not required to support all, or any specific one, of these modes so it is important to check the device’s specifications to verify which signal types can be provided or supported.
SDI (Serial Digital Interface) is a family of digital video interfaces standardized by SMPTE (The Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers). An SDI signal is an uncompressed digital audio and video signal transmitted over 75Ω coaxial cable typically terminated with BNC connectors. SMPTE standards (such as 259M) define the different SDI signal specs and the 3 most well-known among the specs are SD-SDI, HD-SDI and 3G-SDI. The 3G-SDI spec can support up to 3Gbps bandwidth which is required for transferring a 1080p@60Hz signal. Cypress has full series of 3G-SDI products, including matrixes, splitters, switches, converters and scalers. All of them support 3G-SDI and are backwards compatible with SD-SDI and HD-SDI formats. HDMI/TV resolutions can be basically mapped to SDI interfaces as below:
- SD-SDI standardized in SMPTE 259M-C@270Mbps (supports 480i@60Hz/576i@50Hz)
- HD-SDI standardized in SMPTE 292M@1.485Gbps & 1.485/1.001Gbps (supports 720p@60Hz/1080i@60Hz)
- 3G-SDI standardized in SMPTE 424M/425M-A@2.970Gbps & 2.970/1.001Gbps (supports 1080p@60Hz)
CEC (Consumer Electronics Control) is an HDMI feature designed to allow the user to command and control multiple CEC-enabled devices, that are connected via HDMI, by using a single unit’s remote control (for example: controlling a TV and Blu-ray/DVD player using only the remote control of the TV). CEC also allows for individual CEC-enabled devices to command and control each other without user intervention. CEC features are widely adopted across the Cypress HDMI product range. There are 3 major functions provided by Cypress HDMI matrixes, splitters, switchers, extenders and other products:
- CEC Bypass: CEC commands will be routed between the connected devices, or between the transmitter and receiver of an extender set, and any CEC-enabled device in the installation chain will respond the commands and operate accordingly.
- CEC System Reset: Cypress HDMI matrixes or splitters with this feature can send a built-in CEC command to all connected CEC-enabled TV/displays, every 8~10 minutes, to force them to switch their source selection to HDMI input 1.
- CEC Control: Connecting to a PC/NB and using the bundled software application, the Cypress CEC Controller can send CEC commands to control any CEC-enabled device in the installation chain.
There are many methods to control your equipment besides pushing the buttons on the front, including common methods such as IR (Infrared), RS-232, and USB. However, all of those methods of control come with relatively short range distance restrictions, so they can only provide local operational control.
To answer the need for operating and controlling equipment over long distances or wide areas, nowadays many products are designed to allow control via a connection to an Ethernet network (typically TCP/IP). Cypress has adopted this technology and applied it to many of our newer products. Cypress IP-Control-Enabled products can obtain their own IP addresses, just like a normal computer would, and can be accessed over the network using Telnet. Many of those same products also come with built in webpages which provide a WebGUI (Web-based Graphical User Interface) for easy, convenient, and intuitive control of the product.
μCS stands for Micro Control System. Cypress released its first μCS based product into the automation and control market at the Hong Kong Electronics Fair (Autumn Edition), in October 2014. Cypress μCS models are designed to meet the core necessity of connectivity and control in small to medium scale installation scenarios. The purpose behind their development is to provide an alternative control option with straight-forward operation and cost-effectiveness for professional integrators who might consider to switch over from the existing larger, and more complicated, control systems. Cypress μCS models support traditional direct control methods such as RS-232, IR, Relays and Triggers as well as indirect control systems such as IR Learning, Telnet/WebGUI controls. All together this feature set provides users with PC or App based control systems a great amount of flexibility.